Saturday, August 12, 2006

¿Puede hablar el subalterno?

Spivak, Gayatri. "Can the Subaltern Speak?", en: Williams, Patrick / Chrisman Laura. (eds.) Colonial Discourse and Postcolonial Theory. New York: Columbia University Press 1994, 66-111.

El artículo "¿Puede hablar el sujeto subalterno?" analiza los comentarios realizados en Europa y Estados Unidos respecto al “suicidio” de una joven viuda que se arrojó a la pira funeraria donde ardía el marido muerto, siguiendo un antiguo rito funerario hindú, demostrando con este análisis el imperialismo disfrazado de radicalidad persistente aún en los discursos filosóficos occidentales. La crítica alcanza incluso a autores como Gilles Deleuze y Michel Foucault, y los acusa claramente de ser representativos de las tendencias postestructuralistas de la izquierda intelectual europea, al instalarse como observadores occidentales y servir como punto de referencia “transparente” frente al sujeto colonial, ahora por ende, objeto.
La pregunta de Spivak “¿puede hablar el sujeto subalterno?” se funda en una oposición “binaria” que establece una distancia absoluta e infranqueable entre Europa y sus Otros. La pregunta, y luego su respuesta negativa, reproducen términos de este binario absoluto en un argumento circular: los discursos dominantes definen al colonizado o al subalterno como incapaz de razonar, y como tal, requiere de la mediación y la representación de lo que Spivak llama “el intelectual del primer mundo”.
Se descarta toda posiblidad que el subalterno pueda aprender a usar los lenguajes de occidente, y pueda al mismo tiempo seguir habitando su espacio nativo: o se es un intelectual del primer mundo con plena capacidad de hablar, o se es un subalterno silenciado. La noción de un subalterno que no puede hablar nos lleva a la ironía de que si un subalterno deja de estar silenciado, dejaría automáticamente de ser subalterno; el espacio del subalterno en representaciones ficcionadas es tan remoto que hacerlo hablar sería inconcebible, pues pasaría a ser un intelectual orgánico que se debate entre el deseo de representar (darstellen y vertreten) su ser anterior, y el interés aparejado a la nueva perspectiva.
Bajo esta formulación, los estudios subalternos devendrían en un proposición absurda, en una fetichización, ya que el proyecto emancipador de recuperar las historias subalternas se habría transformado en una metafísica de la denegación y el privilegio. Ranajit Guha devela claras motivaciones políticas en los levantamientos subalternos descalificados como “brotes de violencia irracional”.
Sin embargo si aceptamos que el binarismo entre intelectuales y subalternos es un reflejo de los binarios impuestos por las potencias imperiales de los siglos XVIII y XIX, no sería justo generalizar estos binarios en otras regiones con historias coloniales distintas.
Decir que sólo el subalterno puede conocer la subalternidad y expresarla contradice las bases de la deconstrucción, pues es necesaria la existenca de un sujeto idéntico a su propia narrativa: la posibilidad del conocimiento igual a su propio objeto, o de una identidad que abarque en su totalidad al sujeto, y eso es imposible.


El texto de Gayatri Chakravorti Spivak nos entrega una manera de comprender la sociedad y de repensar el mundo de la explotación desde un particular contexto que, debido a su autoconciencia y asumiendo su condición de mujer “colonizada”, nos entrega limpiamente, sin rodeos y con un dominio de lenguaje sociológico, filosófico, psicoanalítico desbordante; una completa reflexión transdiciplinaria.

En la actualidad la heterogeneidad que reviste el mundo de la explotación, producto de la enorme expansión del imperialismo nos lleva a cuestionar seriamente la urgente necesidad de revisar las formas en que las capas más desplazadas de la sociedad deben ser estudiadas. Lo más valioso, a mi juicio, es el aporte que hace en lo referido a la diferenciación entre explotación y subalternidad, si bien su acercamiento es desde un feminismo a ultranza, podemos develar su intención de generar un plan de investigación y análisis activo, en el cual la relación directa con las fuentes del problema es escencial, un principio claramente marxista de construcción teórica.
Me parece de suma importancia el nivel de análisis que propone Spivak para estudiar mediante qué procesos los discursos post coloniales pueden devenir peligrosamente en neocolonialismo, es decir, el peligro que implica que el post colonialismo mediante un discurso académico e institucionalizado del primer mundo indague con medios coloniales el sistema que pretende atacar.

Me llama la atención la categorización que Spivak hace al momento de diferenciar al subalterno del intelectual orgánico por el hecho de ser capaz de “hablar”, pues ella misma cae irremediablemente en esa capa de intelectuales, a pesar de sus antepasados coloniales, y opera activamente dentro de los círculos metropolitanos; sobrepasa las barreras nacionales desplazándose por el mundo y se proyecta sobre otras culturas, un rasgo claramente posmoderno.

El tema de fondo es de un valor incalculable al ampliar la discusión respecto a la injerencia o quizás intromisión de Occidente en un intento fallido por representar al subalterno históricamente silenciado frente a un sistema que analiza las situaciones culturales subalternas con parámetros de un primer mundo neocolonizador. Cuando se construye un discurso desde el sujeto subalterno se debe estar conciente de estar realizando una “práctica” y de que ese discurso, si espera “hablar por” el subalterno, es más bien un remplazo. Incluso la voz de las elites colonizadas no son más que informantes para los estudiosos del primer mundo interesados en recolectar la voz de los Otros. El hombre civilizado así habla por el Otro para finalmente afirmar su superioridad, y mientras se muestra al subalterno, como identidad representada se los niega en tanto conciencia representativa.
Estos estudios aportan enormemente a la renovación teórica y metodológica de la investigación histórica, y al conocimiento de las formas presentes y pasadas de hegemonía, dominación y resistencia.

107 comments:

Anonymous said...

Tu articulo es de enorme ayuda para la comprensión de las criticas de Spivak, nos gustaría poder seguir leyendo tus reflexiones en torno a las ideas de subalterno y resistencia, ya que nuestra tesis justamente trabaja con estos ejes.

un abrazo desde chile!

Anonymous said...

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maryelena said...

Gracias. Tengo una idea más clara de la ideas de Spivak.

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Muchas gracias, estoy haciendo un trabajo sobre Spivak para la universidad y tu asrticulo me ayudo a aclarar algunas dudas que tenia sobre el analisis de Spivak.

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